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    • Messier catalog

      Messier catalog - the most popular catalog of galaxies and nebulae, especially for beginners. In this catalog the brightest objects of the Deep Space are collected, which are accessible for observation in amateur telescopes.
      List of Messier objects
      Marathon Messier

      Charles Messier' title= Charles Messier (1730-1817) - french astronomer. Since 1764 he worked at the Paris Observatory.
      While searching for comets, Messier decided to create a catalog of foggy objects in the sky to facilitate the life of himself and other "comet catchers", so as not to take foggy formations in the sky for new comets.
      There have been several releases of the Messier catalog , in which objects collected by Charles Messier, astronomer Pierre Meshen and other astronomers have been collected. In total, 110 objects are included in the catalog - galaxies, nebulae and star clusters.  Objects are numbered as they are found and entered in the catalog. He did not find all the objects of the Messier catalog himself. Messier studied the records of many of his predecessors, rechecking them. Nevertheless, many objects are open to them.

      Pierre Meshen Astronomer Pierre Meschen, who worked simultaneously with Messier, discovered almost half of the objects from the Messier catalog. His first discovery was the spiral galaxy M63. Messier cross-checked Meshen's messages and put them in his catalog.
      The first edition of the Messier catalog was published in 1774 and contained 45 objects.
      The last edition was published in 1781 and contained 103 objects.
      Messier wanted to stop at the figure of 100, but by the time the last manuscript was sent to the press, Meshen told about three more objects.
      Messier interrupted the filling of the catalog due to severe injury, and also because the English astronomer William Herschel, having acquired more powerful equipment, issued a catalog of 2500 objects.
      The Messier catalog was added to the M110 facility after his death, because Messier observed some objects, although he did not assign them separate numbers.
      M104 - M107 were opened by Meshen, and M108 and M109 have already been mentioned in the description of the M97. M110, the satellite of the Andromeda nebula, - Messier saw him, but did not consider it necessary to allocate.

      It is Messier's catalog that we owe the presence of the letter M in the most used names of such objects as: The globular cluster M13, the Andromeda nebula M31 ...
      For the amateur astronomer Messier's catalog is especially interesting because it was compiled at the end of the 18th century, when the telescopes were not yet very powerful. This means that Messier's catalog contains only the brightest objects, which today are the easiest to see in an amateur telescope.
      Messier himself later said that he had previously limited himself to a telescope with a focal length of 60 cm.
      Although, there are quite noticeable objects that are not included in the Messier catalog. For example, star clusters of Chi and Ash Perseus (NGC 884 and NGC 869) or galaxy NGC 3628 from Triplet of Leo, which is not inferior to its neighbors M65 and M66. Therefore, Messier's catalog is well supplemented with the catalog of Caldwell.
      A more complete catalog of NGC includes a much larger number of galaxies and nebulae, but most of them require more powerful equipment than an "ordinary" amateur astronomer telescope.

      List of Messier objects

      Here is a complete list of Messier catalog objects. For the most notable objects, links to pages with their descriptions are given.

      Full catalog Galaxies Star clusters Nebulae
      - spiral - globular
      - elliptical - open

      # in Messier and NGC catalogs Object type Coord.
      Visual magnit. Angular size Constellation Note
      M1 NGC 1952
      Nebula, supernova remnant 05h 34.5m
      +22° 01'
      8,4m 6'x4' Taurus
      Crab Nebula
      M2 NGC 7089
      Globular star cluster 21h 33.5m
      -00° 49'
      6,3m 16' Aquarius
      M3 NGC 5272
      Globular star cluster 13h 42.2m
      +28° 23'
      7,0m 19' Canes Venatici
      M4 NGC 6121
      Globular star cluster 16h 23.6m
      -26° 32'
      5,6m 35' Scorpius
      M5 NGC 5904
      Globular star cluster 15h 18.6m
      +02° 05'
      5,6m 20' Serpens
      M6 NGC 6405
      Open star cluster 17h 40.1m
      -32° 13'
      4,3m 20' Scorpius
      Butterfly Сluster
      M7 NGC 6475
      Open star cluster 17h 53.9m
      -34° 49'
      3,3m 80' Scorpius
      Ptolemy Сluster
      M8 NGC 6523
      Emission nebula 18h 03.8m
      -24° 23'
      6,0m 90'x40' Sagittarius
      Lagoon Nebula
      Open star cluster 18h 03.8m
      -24° 23'
      m 7' Sagittarius
      Lagoon Сluster
      M9 NGC 6333
      Globular star cluster 17h 19.2m
      -18° 31'
      7,7m 11' Ophiuchus
      M10 NGC 6254
      Globular star cluster 16h 57.1m
      -04° 06'
      6,7m 19' Ophiuchus
      M11 NGC 6705
      Open star cluster 18h 51.1m
      -06° 16'
      7,0m 13' Scutum
      Wild Duck Сluster
      M12 NGC 6218
      Globular star cluster 16h 47.2m
      -01° 57'
      8,0m 14' Ophiuchus
      M13 NGC 6205
      Globular star cluster 16h 41.4m
      +36° 27'
      7,0m 21' Hercules
      Great Globular Cluster in Hercules Сluster
      M14 NGC 6402
      Globular star cluster 17h 37.6m
      -03° 15'
      9,5m 11' Ophiuchus
      M15 NGC 7078
      Globular star cluster 21h 30.0m
      +12° 10'
      7,5m 18' Pegasus
      M16 NGC 6611
      Open star cluster 18h 18.8m
      -13° 47'
      6,5m 21' Serpens
      Eagle Сluster
      M17 NGC 6618
      Emission nebula 18h 20.8m
      -16° 11'
      7,0m 46'x37' Sagittarius
      Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula Nebula
      Open star cluster 18h 20.8m
      -16° 11'
      m 5' Sagittarius
      Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula Сluster
      M18 NGC 6613
      Open star cluster 18h 19.9m
      -17° 08'
      8,0m 5' Sagittarius
      M19 NGC 6273
      Globular star cluster 17h 02.6m
      -26° 16'
      8,5m 14' Ophiuchus
      M20 NGC 6514
      Emission nebula 18h 02.3m
      -23° 02'
      5,0m 29'х27' Sagittarius
      Trifid Nebula
      Open star cluster 18h 02.3m
      -23° 02'
      m 20' Sagittarius
      Trifid Сluster
      M21 NGC 6531
      Open star cluster 18h 04.6m
      -22° 30'
      7,0m 18' Sagittarius
      M22 NGC 6656
      Globular star cluster 18h 36.4m
      -23° 54'
      6,5m 33' Sagittarius
      Sagittarius Сluster
      M23 NGC 6494
      Open star cluster 17h 56.8m
      -19° 01'
      6,0m 35' Sagittarius
      M24 IC 4715
      The Milky Way Region 18h 16.9m
      -18° 29'
      m 90' Sagittarius
      Sagittarius Star Cloud
      M25 IC 4725
      Open star cluster 18h 31.6m
      -19° 15'
      4,9m 30' Sagittarius
      M26 NGC 6694
      Open star cluster 18h 45.2m
      -09° 24'
      9,5m 10' Scutum
      M27 NGC 6853
      Planetary nebula 19h 59.6m
      +22° 43'
      7,4m 8,4'×6,1' Vulpecula
      Dumbbell Nebula
      M28 NGC 6626
      Globular star cluster 18h 24.5m
      -24° 52'
      8,5m 10' Sagittarius
      M29 NGC 6913
      Open star cluster 20h 23.9m
      +38° 32'
      9,0m 8' Cygnus
      Cooling Сluster
      M30 NGC 7099
      Globular star cluster 21h 40.4m
      -23° 11'
      8,5m 12' Capricornus
      M31 NGC 224
      Spiral galaxy 00h 42.8m
      +41° 16'
      3,4m 3,17°×1° Andromeda
      Andromeda Galaxy
      M32 NGC 221
      Elliptical galaxy 00h 42.7m
      +40° 52'
      8,1m 9'×7' Andromeda
      M33 NGC 598
      Spiral galaxy 01h 33.9m
      +30° 39'
      5,7m 71'×42' Triangulum
      Triangulum Galaxy
      M34 NGC 1039
      Open star cluster 02h 42.0m
      +42° 47'
      6,0m 35' Perseus
      M35 NGC 2168
      Open star cluster 06h 09.1m
      +24° 21'
      5,5m 28' Gemini
      M36 NGC 1960
      Open star cluster 05h 36.2m
      +34° 08'
      6,5m 12' Auriga
      M37 NGC 2099
      Open star cluster 05h 52.4m
      +32° 33'
      6,0m 25' Auriga
      M38 NGC 1912
      Open star cluster 05h 28.7m
      +35° 51'
      7,0m 15' Auriga
      M39 NGC 7092
      Open star cluster 21h 31.8m
      +48° 26'
      5,5m 30' Cygnus
      M40 WNC 4
      Optical pair of stars 12h 22.2m
      +58° 05'
      9m 0,8' Ursa Major
      Winnecke 4
      M41 NGC 2287
      Open star cluster 06h 46.0m
      +20° 45'
      5,0m 40' Canis Major
      M42 NGC 1976
      Emission nebula 05h 35.4m
      -05° 23'
      5,0m 65'×60' Orion
      Orion Nebula
      Open star cluster 05h 35.4m
      -05° 23'
      m 3' Orion
      Orion Сluster
      M43 NGC 1982
      Emission nebula 05h 35.5m
      -05° 16'
      7,0m 20'x15' Orion
      De Mairan's, part of M42 Nebula
      M44 NGC 2632
      Open star cluster 08h 40.4m
      +19° 41'
      4,0m 1,2° Cancer
      Beehive Сluster
      M45 Mel 22
      Open star cluster 03h 47.0m
      +24° 07'
      1.6m Taurus
      Pleiades Сluster
      Reflecting nebula 03h 46.0m
      +23° 46'
      m 30' × 30' Taurus
      Pleiades Nebula
      M46 NGC 2437
      Open star cluster 07h 41.8m
      -14° 49'
      6,5m 20' Puppis
      M47 NGC 2422
      Open star cluster 07h 36.6m
      -14° 30'
      4,5m 30' Puppis
      M48 NGC 2548
      Open star cluster 08h 13.7m
      -05° 45'
      5,5m 30' Hydra
      M49 NGC 4472
      Elliptical galaxy 12h 29.8m
      +08° 00'
      8,4m 10'×8' Virgo
      M50 NGC 2323
      Open star cluster 07h 02.8m
      +08° 23'
      7,0m 15' Monoceros
      M51 NGC 5194,NGC 5195
      Spiral galaxy 13h 29.9m
      +47° 12'
      8,4m 15'×7' Canes Venatici
      Whirlpool Galaxy
      M52 NGC 7654
      Open star cluster 23h 24.2m
      +61° 35'
      8,0m 16' Cassiopeia
      M53 NGC 5024
      Globular star cluster 13h 12.9m
      +18° 10'
      8,5m 13' Coma Berenices
      M54 NGC 6715
      Globular star cluster 18h 55.1m
      -30° 29'
      8,5m 12' Sagittarius
      M55 NGC 6809
      Globular star cluster 19h 40.0m
      -30° 58'
      7,0m 19' Sagittarius
      M56 NGC 6779
      Globular star cluster 19h 16.6m
      +30° 11'
      9,5m 7' Lyra
      M57 NGC 6720
      Planetary nebula 18h 53.6m
      +33° 02'
      8,8m 86"×62" Lyra
      Ring Nebula
      M58 NGC 4579
      Spiral galaxy 12h 37.7m
      +11° 49'
      9,6m 6'×5' Virgo
      M59 NGC 4621
      Elliptical galaxy 12h 42.0m
      +11° 39'
      9,6m 5'×4' Virgo
      M60 NGC 4649
      Elliptical galaxy 12h 43.7m
      +11° 33'
      8,8m 7'×6' Virgo
      M61 NGC 4303
      Spiral galaxy 12h 21.9m
      +04° 28'
      9,6m 7'×6' Virgo
      M62 NGC 6266
      Globular star cluster 17h 01.2m
      -30° 07'
      8,0m 11' Ophiuchus
      M63 NGC 5055
      Spiral galaxy 13h 15.8m
      +42° 02'
      8,6m 13'×7' Canes Venatici
      Sunflower Galaxy
      M64 NGC 4826
      Spiral galaxy 12h 56.7m
      +21° 41'
      8,5m 11'×5' Coma Berenices
      Black Eye Galaxy
      M65 NGC 3623
      Spiral galaxy 11h 18.9m
      +13° 05'
      9,3m 10'×3' Leo
      M66 NGC 3627
      Spiral galaxy 11h 20.2m
      +12° 59'
      9,0m 9'×4' Leo
      M67 NGC 2682
      Open star cluster 08h 51.4m
      +11° 49'
      7,5m 25' Cancer
      M68 NGC 4590
      Globular star cluster 12h 39.5m
      -26° 45'
      9,0m 11' Hydra
      M69 NGC 6637
      Globular star cluster 18h 31.4m
      -32° 21'
      9,0m 10' Sagittarius
      M70 NGC 6681
      Globular star cluster 18h 43.2m
      -32° 17'
      9,0m 8' Sagittarius
      M71 NGC 6838
      Globular star cluster 19h 53.8m
      +18° 47'
      8,5m 7' Sagitta
      M72 NGC 6981
      Globular star cluster 20h 53.5m
      -12° 32'
      10,0m 6' Aquarius
      M73 NGC 6994
      Asterism - 4 stars, visible nearby 20h 58.9m
      -12° 38'
      m 2,8' Aquarius
      M74 NGC 628
      Spiral galaxy 01h 36.7m
      +15° 47'
      8,5m 11'×10' Pisces
      M75 NGC 6864
      Globular star cluster 20h 06.1m
      -21° 55'
      9,5m 7' Sagittarius
      M76 NGC 650,NGC 651
      Planetary nebula 01h 42.3m
      +51° 34'
      10,1m 67" Perseus
      Little Dumbbell Nebula
      M77 NGC 1068
      Spiral galaxy 02h 42.7m
      +00° 01'
      8,9m 7'×6' Cetus
      Cetus A Galaxy
      M78 NGC 2068
      Reflecting nebula 05h 46.7m
      +00° 03'
      8,0m 8'x6' Orion
      M79 NGC 1904
      Globular star cluster 05h 24.2m
      -24° 31'
      8,5m 6' Lepus
      M80 NGC 6093
      Globular star cluster 16h 17.0m
      -22° 59'
      7,3m 9' Scorpius
      M81 NGC 3031
      Spiral galaxy 09h 55.5m
      +69° 04'
      6,8m 27'×14' Ursa Major
      Bode's Galaxy
      M82 NGC 3034
      Spiral galaxy 09h 55.9m
      +69° 41'
      8,4m 11'×4' Ursa Major
      Cigar Galaxy
      M83 NGC 5236
      Spiral galaxy 13h 37.0m
      -29° 52'
      7,5m 13'×12' Hydra
      Southern Pinwheel Galaxy
      M84 NGC 4374
      Elliptical galaxy 12h 25.1m
      +12° 53'
      9,1m 7'×6' Virgo
      M85 NGC 4382
      Lenticular or elliptical galaxy 12h 25.4m
      +18° 11'
      9,1m 7'×6' Coma Berenices
      M86 NGC 4406
      Lenticular or elliptical galaxy 12h 26.2m
      +12° 57'
      8,9m 9'×6' Virgo
      M87 NGC 4486
      Elliptical galaxy 12h 30.8m
      +12° 23'
      8,6m 8'×7' Virgo
      Virgo A Galaxy
      M88 NGC 4501
      Spiral galaxy 12h 32.0m
      +14° 25'
      9,6m 7'×4' Coma Berenices
      M89 NGC 4552
      Elliptical galaxy 12h 35.7m
      +12° 33'
      9,7m 5'×5' Virgo
      M90 NGC 4569
      Spiral galaxy 12h 36.8m
      +13° 10'
      9,5m 10'×4' Virgo
      M91 NGC 4548
      Spiral galaxy 12h 35.4m
      +14° 30'
      10,1m 5'×4' Coma Berenices
      M92 NGC 6341
      Globular star cluster 17h 17.1m
      +43° 08'
      7,5m 14' Hercules
      M93 NGC 2447
      Open star cluster 07h 44.6m
      -23° 52'
      6,5m 24' Puppis
      M94 NGC 4736
      Spiral galaxy 12h 50.9m
      +41° 07'
      8,2m 11'×9' Canes Venatici
      M95 NGC 3351
      Spiral galaxy 10h 44.0m
      +11° 42'
      9,7m 7'×5' Leo
      M96 NGC 3368
      Spiral galaxy 10h 46.8m
      +11° 49'
      9,2m 8'×5' Leo
      M97 NGC 3587
      Planetary nebula 11h 14.8m
      +55° 01'
      9,9m 170" Ursa Major
      Owl Nebula
      M98 NGC 4192
      Spiral galaxy 12h 13.8m
      +14° 54'
      10,1m 10'×3' Coma Berenices
      M99 NGC 4254
      Spiral galaxy 12h 18.8m
      +14° 25'
      9,9m 5'×5' Coma Berenices
      M100 NGC 4321
      Spiral galaxy 12h 22.9m
      +15° 49'
      9,3m 7'×6' Coma Berenices
      M101 NGC 5457
      Spiral galaxy 14h 03.2m
      +54° 21'
      7,7m 29'×27' Ursa Major
      Pinwheel Galaxy

      Error in the catalog 15h 06.5m
      +55° 46'
      9,9m Draco
      M102 is error in the catalog — it is М101 or NGC 5866
      M103 NGC 581
      Open star cluster 01h 33.2m
      +60° 42'
      7,0m 6' Cassiopeia
      M104 NGC 4594
      Spiral galaxy 12h 40.0m
      -11° 37'
      8,0m 9'×4' Virgo
      Sombrero Galaxy
      M105 NGC 3379
      Elliptical galaxy 10h 47.8m
      +12° 35'
      9,3m 5'×5' Leo
      M106 NGC 4258
      Spiral galaxy 12h 19.0m
      +47° 18'
      8,3m 19'×7' Canes Venatici
      M107 NGC 6171
      Globular star cluster 16h 32.5m
      -13° 03'
      10,0m 13' Ophiuchus
      M108 NGC 3556
      Spiral galaxy 11h 11.5m
      +55° 40'
      10,0m 9'×2' Ursa Major
      M109 NGC 3992
      Spiral galaxy 11h 57.6m
      +53° 23'
      9,8m 8'×5' Ursa Major
      M110 NGC 205
      Elliptical galaxy 00h 40.4m
      +41° 41'
      8,0m 22'×11' Andromeda

      Marathon Messier

      Marathon Messier - a kind of "race" for astronomers, observers. No, with the telescope behind you, there's no need to run anywhere :). The fact is that twice a year, on a new moon in March and in October, such conditions develop, that all objects of the Messier catalog can be seen in one night!
      This is the name of the Messier Marathon. Yes, it is rather not about watching the celestial bodies, but about the speeding up of the telescope. Nevertheless, it is difficult not to agree with the fact that even in this case the impressions will be higher than the roof!
      Alas, if you read this article at the mentioned time, then ... do not rush to rejoice. In order to perform the Messier marathon, you must be between 10° and 35° north latitude at this time ...

      Lives in the north and there is no way to go south with a good telescope? Do not be upset. The Messier Marathon, albeit in a limited form, can be held in the north. The main thing is that you now know at what time it's best to do it.
      Of course, you will not see the southernmost objects, they will be beyond the horizon. But all the other objects Messier will be in your field of vision overnight.

      This version of the Messier catalog uses pictures of www.nasa.gov (NASA) and other sources. Images in the places of their original location are mentioned as free from license restrictions. In case of misunderstandings, please contact the authors: let me know and they will be deleted. 

      Nikolay Kurdyapin, astro-map.com  
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