English  |   Русский  |   Deutsch  |   Español  |   Italiano  |   Português  |

Messier catalog

Messier catalog - the most popular catalog of galaxies and nebulae, especially for beginners. In this catalog the brightest objects of the Deep Space are collected, which are accessible for observation in amateur telescopes.

List of Messier objects
Marathon Messier

Charles Messier Charles Messier (1730-1817) - french astronomer. Since 1751 he worked at the Paris Observatory.
While searching for comets, Messier decided to create a catalog of foggy objects in the sky to facilitate the life of himself and other "comet catchers", for distinguish these nebulous formations from comets..

There have been several releases of the Messier catalog , in which objects collected by Charles Messier, astronomer Pierre Meshen and other astronomers have been collected. In total, 110 objects are included in the catalog - galaxies, nebulae and star clusters.  Objects are numbered as they are found and entered in the catalog. He did not find all the objects of the Messier catalog himself. Messier studied the records of many of his predecessors, rechecking them. Nevertheless, many objects are open to them.

Pierre Meshen Astronomer Pierre Meschen, who worked simultaneously with Messier, discovered almost half of the objects from the Messier catalog. His first discovery was the spiral galaxy M63. Messier cross-checked Meshen's messages and put them in his catalog.

The first edition of the Messier catalog was published in 1774 and contained 45 objects.
The last edition was published in 1781 and contained 103 objects.
Messier wanted to stop at the figure of 100, but by the time the last manuscript was sent to the press, Meshen told about three more objects.
Messier interrupted the filling of the catalog due to severe injury, and also because the English astronomer William Herschel, having acquired more powerful equipment, issued a catalog of 2500 objects.
The Messier catalog was added to the M110 facility after his death, because Messier observed some objects, although he did not assign them separate numbers.
M104 - M107 were opened by Meshen, and M108 and M109 have already been mentioned in the description of the M97. M110, the satellite of the Andromeda nebula, - Messier saw him, but did not consider it necessary to allocate.

It is Messier's catalog that we owe the presence of the letter M in the most used names of such objects as: The globular cluster M13, the Andromeda nebula M31 ...
For the amateur astronomer Messier's catalog is especially interesting because it was compiled at the end of the 18th century, when the telescopes were not yet very powerful. This means that Messier's catalog contains only the brightest objects, which today are the easiest to see in an amateur telescope.

Messier himself later said that he had previously limited himself to a telescope with a focal length of 60 cm.
Although, there are quite noticeable objects that are not included in the Messier catalog. For example, star clusters of Chi and Ash Perseus (NGC 884 and NGC 869) or galaxy NGC 3628 from Triplet of Leo, which is not inferior to its neighbors M65 and M66. Therefore, Messier's catalog is well supplemented with the catalog of Caldwell.
A more complete catalog of NGC includes a much larger number of galaxies and nebulae, but most of them require more powerful equipment than an "ordinary" amateur astronomer telescope.

List of Messier objects

Here is a complete list of Messier catalog objects. For the most notable objects, links to pages with their descriptions are given.

Filters:
Full catalog Galaxies Star clusters Nebulae
- spiral - globular
- elliptical - open

Star clusters of the Messier catalog


# in Messier and NGC catalogs Object type Coord.
α
δ
Visual magnit. Angular size Constellation Note
M2
M2 NGC 7089
Globular star cluster 21h33.5m
-00° 49'
6,3m 16' Aquarius
(Aqr)
M3
M3 NGC 5272
Globular star cluster 13h42.2m
+28° 23'
7,0m 19' Canes Venatici
(CVn)
M4
M4 NGC 6121
Globular star cluster 16h23.6m
-26° 32'
5,6m 35' Scorpius
(Sco)
M5
M5 NGC 5904
Globular star cluster 15h18.6m
+02° 05'
5,6m 20' Serpens
(Ser)
M6
M6 NGC 6405
Open star cluster 17h40.1m
-32° 13'
4,3m 20' Scorpius
(Sco)
Butterfly Сluster
M7
M7 NGC 6475
Open star cluster 17h53.9m
-34° 49'
3,3m 80' Scorpius
(Sco)
Ptolemy Сluster
M8
M8
Open star cluster 18h03.8m
-24° 23'
m 7' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
Lagoon Сluster
M9
M9 NGC 6333
Globular star cluster 17h19.2m
-18° 31'
7,7m 11' Ophiuchus
(Oph)
M10
M10 NGC 6254
Globular star cluster 16h57.1m
-04° 06'
6,7m 19' Ophiuchus
(Oph)
M11
M11 NGC 6705
Open star cluster 18h51.1m
-06° 16'
7,0m 13' Scutum
(Sct)
Wild Duck Сluster
M12
M12 NGC 6218
Globular star cluster 16h47.2m
-01° 57'
8,0m 14' Ophiuchus
(Oph)
M13
M13 NGC 6205
Globular star cluster 16h41.4m
+36° 27'
7,0m 21' Hercules
(Her)
Great Globular Cluster in Hercules Сluster
M14
M14 NGC 6402
Globular star cluster 17h37.6m
-03° 15'
9,5m 11' Ophiuchus
(Oph)
M15
M15 NGC 7078
Globular star cluster 21h30.0m
+12° 10'
7,5m 18' Pegasus
(Peg)
M16
M16 NGC 6611
Open star cluster 18h18.8m
-13° 47'
6,5m 21' Serpens
(Ser)
Eagle Сluster
M17
M17
Open star cluster 18h20.8m
-16° 11'
m 5' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula Сluster
M18
M18 NGC 6613
Open star cluster 18h19.9m
-17° 08'
8,0m 5' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M19
M19 NGC 6273
Globular star cluster 17h02.6m
-26° 16'
8,5m 14' Ophiuchus
(Oph)
M20
M20
Open star cluster 18h02.3m
-23° 02'
m 20' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
Trifid Сluster
M21
M21 NGC 6531
Open star cluster 18h04.6m
-22° 30'
7,0m 18' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M22
M22 NGC 6656
Globular star cluster 18h36.4m
-23° 54'
6,5m 33' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
Sagittarius Сluster
M23
M23 NGC 6494
Open star cluster 17h56.8m
-19° 01'
6,0m 35' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M25
M25 IC 4725
Open star cluster 18h31.6m
-19° 15'
4,9m 30' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M26
M26 NGC 6694
Open star cluster 18h45.2m
-09° 24'
9,5m 10' Scutum
(Sct)
M28
M28 NGC 6626
Globular star cluster 18h24.5m
-24° 52'
8,5m 10' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M29
M29 NGC 6913
Open star cluster 20h23.9m
+38° 32'
9,0m 8' Cygnus
(Cyg)
Cooling Сluster
M30
M30 NGC 7099
Globular star cluster 21h40.4m
-23° 11'
8,5m 12' Capricornus
(Cap)
M34
M34 NGC 1039
Open star cluster 02h42.0m
+42° 47'
6,0m 35' Perseus
(Per)
M35
M35 NGC 2168
Open star cluster 06h09.1m
+24° 21'
5,5m 28' Gemini
(Gem)
M36
M36 NGC 1960
Open star cluster 05h36.2m
+34° 08'
6,5m 12' Auriga
(Aur)
M37
M37 NGC 2099
Open star cluster 05h52.4m
+32° 33'
6,0m 25' Auriga
(Aur)
M38
M38 NGC 1912
Open star cluster 05h28.7m
+35° 51'
7,0m 15' Auriga
(Aur)
M39
M39 NGC 7092
Open star cluster 21h31.8m
+48° 26'
5,5m 30' Cygnus
(Cyg)
M41
M41 NGC 2287
Open star cluster 06h46.0m
+20° 45'
5,0m 40' Canis Major
(CMa)
M42
M42
Open star cluster 05h35.4m
-05° 23'
m 3' Orion
(Ori)
Orion Сluster
M44
M44 NGC 2632
Open star cluster 08h40.4m
+19° 41'
4,0m 1,2° Cancer
(Cnc)
Beehive Сluster
M45
M45 Mel 22
Open star cluster 03h47.0m
+24° 07'
1.6m Taurus
(Tau)
Pleiades Сluster
M46
M46 NGC 2437
Open star cluster 07h41.8m
-14° 49'
6,5m 20' Puppis
(Pup)
M47
M47 NGC 2422
Open star cluster 07h36.6m
-14° 30'
4,5m 30' Puppis
(Pup)
M48
M48 NGC 2548
Open star cluster 08h13.7m
-05° 45'
5,5m 30' Hydra
(Hya)
M50
M50 NGC 2323
Open star cluster 07h02.8m
+08° 23'
7,0m 15' Monoceros
(Mon)
M52
M52 NGC 7654
Open star cluster 23h24.2m
+61° 35'
8,0m 16' Cassiopeia
(Cas)
M53
M53 NGC 5024
Globular star cluster 13h12.9m
+18° 10'
8,5m 13' Coma Berenices
(Com)
M54
M54 NGC 6715
Globular star cluster 18h55.1m
-30° 29'
8,5m 12' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M55
M55 NGC 6809
Globular star cluster 19h40.0m
-30° 58'
7,0m 19' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M56
M56 NGC 6779
Globular star cluster 19h16.6m
+30° 11'
9,5m 7' Lyra
(Lyr)
M62
M62 NGC 6266
Globular star cluster 17h01.2m
-30° 07'
8,0m 11' Ophiuchus
(Oph)
M67
M67 NGC 2682
Open star cluster 08h51.4m
+11° 49'
7,5m 25' Cancer
(Cnc)
M68
M68 NGC 4590
Globular star cluster 12h39.5m
-26° 45'
9,0m 11' Hydra
(Hya)
M69
M69 NGC 6637
Globular star cluster 18h31.4m
-32° 21'
9,0m 10' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M70
M70 NGC 6681
Globular star cluster 18h43.2m
-32° 17'
9,0m 8' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M71
M71 NGC 6838
Globular star cluster 19h53.8m
+18° 47'
8,5m 7' Sagitta
(Sge)
M72
M72 NGC 6981
Globular star cluster 20h53.5m
-12° 32'
10,0m 6' Aquarius
(Aqr)
M75
M75 NGC 6864
Globular star cluster 20h06.1m
-21° 55'
9,5m 7' Sagittarius
(Sgr)
M79
M79 NGC 1904
Globular star cluster 05h24.2m
-24° 31'
8,5m 6' Lepus
(Lep)
M80
M80 NGC 6093
Globular star cluster 16h17.0m
-22° 59'
7,3m 9' Scorpius
(Sco)
M92
M92 NGC 6341
Globular star cluster 17h17.1m
+43° 08'
7,5m 14' Hercules
(Her)
M93
M93 NGC 2447
Open star cluster 07h44.6m
-23° 52'
6,5m 24' Puppis
(Pup)
M103
M103 NGC 581
Open star cluster 01h33.2m
+60° 42'
7,0m 6' Cassiopeia
(Cas)
M107
M107 NGC 6171
Globular star cluster 16h32.5m
-13° 03'
10,0m 13' Ophiuchus
(Oph)

Marathon Messier

Marathon Messier - a kind of "race" for astronomers, observers. No, with the telescope behind you, there's no need to run anywhere :). The fact is that twice a year, on a new moon in March and in October, such conditions develop, that all objects of the Messier catalog can be seen in one night!

This is the name of the Messier Marathon. Yes, it is rather not about watching the celestial bodies, but about the speeding up of the telescope. Nevertheless, it is difficult not to agree with the fact that even in this case the impressions will be higher than the roof!

Alas, if you read this article at the mentioned time, then ... do not rush to rejoice. In order to perform the Messier marathon, you must be between 10° and 35° north latitude at this time ...

Lives in the north and there is no way to go south with a good telescope? Do not be upset. The Messier Marathon, albeit in a limited form, can be held in the north. The main thing is that you now know at what time it's best to do it.
Of course, you will not see the southernmost objects, they will be beyond the horizon. But all the other objects Messier will be in your field of vision overnight.


This version of the Messier catalog uses pictures of www.nasa.gov (NASA) and other sources. Images in the places of their original location are mentioned as free from license restrictions. In case of misunderstandings, please contact the authors: let me know and they will be deleted. 

Nikolay Kurdyapin, astro-map.com  
Liked?   or tell your friends:

Copyright © 2018, astro-map.com
At a reprint of materials from this site link to the astro-map.com obligatory.
info@astro-map.com